06202018Wed
Last updateWed, 20 Jun 2018 6pm

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From Cannon Balls to Pressure Seals: Graphite for Sealing

From Cannon Balls to Pressure Seals: Graphite for Sealing

From time to time, we re-publish well-re...

Gaskets Are Not Created Equal

Gaskets Are Not Created Equal

Gaskets are near the bottom of the food ...

Your Valves May Be Weaponized

Your Valves May Be Weaponized

The advent of the Internet of Things (Io...

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Industry Headlines

Global LNG Trade Growing, Led by Australia and the U.S.

Wednesday, 20 June 2018  |  Chris Guy

Global trade in liquefied natural gas (LNG) reached 38.2 billion cubic feet per day (Bcf/d) in 2017, a 10% (3.5 Bcf/d) increase from 2016 and the larg...

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Industry Headlines

Metso Receives Major Valve Orders in China

1 DAY AGO

Metso has received two valve orders totaling 8,200 valves from major pulp and paper customers in China. The orders are booked in Metso's first quarter 2018 orders received. The total value of the orders and the company names are not being disclosed. Broadly covering China's mid and high-end customers ...

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A-T Controls Names Andy Cheney Southwest Regional Manager

5 DAYS AGO

A-T Controls recently announced the addition of Andy Cheney as the company’s new southwest regional manager, effective immediately.

Cheney’s new role will cover California, South Nevada, Arizona and New Mexico. He has over twenty years in the valve and automation business and is very famil...

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Global LNG Trade Growing, Led by Australia and the U.S.

1 HOUR AGO

Global trade in liquefied natural gas (LNG) reached 38.2 billion cubic feet per day (Bcf/d) in 2017, a 10% (3.5 Bcf/d) increase from 2016 and the largest annual volume increase since 2010, according to the Annual Report on LNG trade by the International Association of Liquefied Natural Gas Importers...

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U.S. Natural Gas Production Could Grow 60% Over Next 20 Years

1 HOUR AGO

A decade since the start of a shale gas revolution that unlocked new supplies and resulted in a “wholesale turnaround” in U.S. production, the overall size of recoverable gas reserves continues to increase and the pace of production growth is only accelerating, a new report by IHS Markit s...

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Texas Economy Continues to Expand at “Solid Pace”

4 HOURS AGO

The Texas economy is expanding at a solid pace. Employment has grown at a 3.6% annualized rate through May, driven by job gains in the goods-producing sector. Unemployment remains near its historical low, and labor markets are tight. The Dallas Fed’s Texas Business Outlook Surveys (TBOS) suggest...

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Consumer Sentiment Climbs to Three-Month High

1 DAY AGO

Consumer sentiment rose slightly in early June due to consumers' more favorable assessments of their current financial situation and more favorable views of current buying conditions for household durables. The Expectations Index declined to its lowest level since the start of the year due to less f...

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The Rough-And-Tumble Oil And Gas Industry

spr11_oil_refinery_162px

Rugged, reliable and safe are essential characteristics to all equipment operating in this industry, and valves are certainly no exception.

Historically, the oil and gas industry has presented equipment suppliers and production personnel with difficult and demanding operating conditions. For valves, that has translated into an ever-increasing need for tougher, longer-lasting, better performing valves.

Demand for oil and gas grew tremendously during the industrial revolution and grew even further to fuel the development of western economies. This demand spurred the need for deeper wells, longer pipelines and lower production costs, which required drillers and refiners to select equipment more carefully. As production, transportation and processing technology advanced, equipment performance requirements became more and more stringent to support increasing operational efficiencies. Today, performance expectations are higher than ever because the variety of operating conditions has expanded, and the protection of personnel and the environment have been added to the list of requirements.

Valve service environments and operating conditions within the oil and gas industry are unique and extreme. From exceptionally high temperature (greater than 1,500° F or 816° C) and high pressure (greater than 25,000 psig) to cryogenic (-150° F or -101° C) or cryogenic for LNG (-260° F or -162° C ) and very low-pressure applications, valves must be engineered to perform dependably. In addition to this wide range of conditions, the remote locations of valve services also present unique challenges. Examples include deep sea valves operating 10,000 feet (3,048 meters) below the sea surface and pipeline valves exposed to the extreme temperatures found in a desert. Valves in these tough environments may stay open or closed for extended periods of time, yet they are expected to operate reliably even when they have not been cycled in many years.

spr11_fig_1Figure 1. The many stages of petroleum refining

Each segment of the oil and gas industry—upstream, midstream and downstream—offers its own examples of extreme conditions for valves. In the upstream segment, valves control the flow of crude oil and natural gas from high-pressure injection systems to choke valves and blow-out preventers at the top of wells. Valve systems are asked to perform over the many years of a producing well’s life—a life that depends on different factors such as economies and new recovery techniques. New-found sources of oil and gas from tar sands and shale formations have added to the complexity of valve specifications because they require placing oil and gas into pipelines taken to processing facilities that can be many miles away.

The midstream segment—storage and transportation of oil and gas resources from remote sources such as the deepwater fields of the Gulf of Mexico or the frozen tundra of Alaska—has another unique set of conditions. Long pipelines require compressors along the way to keep the product moving, and valves are asked to protect equipment while offering minimal restriction to the flow. Extremely low temperatures are required for converting natural gas into natural gas liquids in preparation for transportation from isolated gas fields to gas-consuming markets. Cryogenic service demands that valves be made of materials for low temperatures and other special designs. Midstream solutions for loading/offloading terminals and storage tanks for oil and gas products offer more opportunities for valve suppliers.

The third industry segment—downstream—brings challenges to find solutions for the refining process of crude oil, as well as the sale and distribution of both the refined product (i.e., gasoline, fuel, asphalt, etc.) and natural gas. This sector is made up of industrial, retail and distribution businesses and is the segment that provides products such as heating and transportation fuels to consumers and businesses. Additionally, this segment feeds raw materials to a variety of petrochemical industries that use petroleum-based products to make plastics, fertilizers, pharmaceuticals and more. The valve requirements for the downstream market include higher-pressure designs and metal-seating technology and metallurgies to accommodate the temperatures at which modern refineries operate.

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