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The Limits of Standard Manual Globe Valves for Throttling

The Limits of Standard Manual Globe Valves for Throttling

A common practice in process services is...

Industry and Regulatory Changes in Offshore Operations

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On May 13, 2016, the offshore oil and ga...

Strategies for Successful SIS Valve Diagnostic Implementation

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Stop Check Valves

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Industry Headlines

Additive Manufacturing Industry Hit $5.1 Billion in 2015

2 HOURS AGO  |  Chris Guy

According to Wohlers Report 2016, the additive manufacturing (AM) industry, consisting of all AM products and services worldwide, grew 25.9% (CAGR) to...

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Industry Headlines

Weir Opens New Safety Relief Valve Facility in Malaysia

1 DAY AGO

Weir has opened a new facility to increase the global reach and competitiveness of Weir valves by establishing a manufacturing and assembly plant close to Malaysia’s capital Kuala Lumpur.

The Malaysian operation has already successfully supplied several large and strategic projects, especially ...

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ValvTechnologies Names Garcia, Mermelstein to New Positions

6 DAYS AGO
ValvTechnologies Names Garcia, Mermelstein to New Positions

ValvTechnologies, Inc. has named David Garcia director of manufacturing and Steve Mermelstein as regional director, Americas and director, channel management.

Previously, West Point graduate Garcia served as director of operations for Merla Wellhead Solutions and held plant manager positions at Hallib...

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What’s Behind Growth of U.S. Natural Gas Use

2 HOURS AGO

U.S. consumption of natural gas is projected to rise from 28 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) in 2015 to 34 Tcf in 2040, an average increase of about 1% annually, according to EIA's Annual Energy Outlook 2016 . The industrial and electric power sectors make up 49% and 34% of this growth, respectively, while ...

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Industry Survey Finds U.S. Wind Power on the Rise

3 HOURS AGO

Wind power, America’s fastest growing new source of electricity, will stay on pace to grow to supply 10% of U.S. electricity by 2020, that’s according to the American Wind Energy Association (AWEA). Helping to grow wind energy in the U.S. are a mix of stable federal policy, passed late las...

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Additive Manufacturing Industry Hit $5.1 Billion in 2015

2 HOURS AGO

According to Wohlers Report 2016, the additive manufacturing (AM) industry, consisting of all AM products and services worldwide, grew 25.9% (CAGR) to $5.165 billion in 2015. The CAGR for the previous three years was 31.5%. Over the past 27 years, the CAGR for the industry is 26.2%. Wohlers Associat...

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Second Quarter GDP Forecast Points to 2.9% Increase

7 HOURS AGO

The Atlanta Federal Reserve’s GDPNow model forecast for real GDP growth in the second quarter of 2016 is 2.9% on May 26, up from 2.5% on May 17. The forecast for second-quarter real gross private domestic investment growth increased from -0.3% to 0.4% following this morning's durable manufacturi...

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Pipeline Valves—Always Ready

vmfall11_pipeline1

From time to time, we will re-post particularly well-received articles that have previously run on VALVEMagazine.com so that those who might have missed them will be able to catch up on the best of the best. This article on Pipeline Valves, initially ran on November 7, 2011.

This nation is crisscrossed by hundreds of thousands of miles of crucial pipelines that transport vital feedstock from sources to the places where it’s transformed into fuel and products. For the valve industry, that translates into millions of dollars of business.

According to Hart Data and Mapping Services, the United States has over 700,000 miles of crude oil and natural gas pipelines—about 100,000 miles of crude onshore pipelines and over 600,000 miles of onshore gas pipelines. This number stands to greatly increase as drilling in the various shale plays across the continent occurs. These seemingly endless strings of pipe have one thing in common: They all contain large numbers of valves optimized for pipeline operating conditions.

WHAT’S IN A PIPELINE?

Both quarter-turn and multi-turn block valves as well as check valves are used in pipeline service. Those built for gas or crude oil pipeline service are designed and tested in accordance with the American Petroleum Institute (API) specification 6D “Pipeline Valves.” The document, which is also published by the International Organization for Standardization as ISO 14313, includes requirements for gate, ball, check and plug type valves. Prior to the mid-1950s, the choice of valve for use in pipeline blocking applications was easy—gate valves were used because the pipeline ball valve had not been invented yet. Some plug valves also were used back then, but the majority of the designs for these valves were reduced-port type that were not piggable.

The term “piggable” has nothing to do with breakfast meat choices. Rather, it means being “pig-capable”—in other words, the devices designed to clean or inspect the interior of the pipeline (the “pigs”) also may be passed through the bore of the valve without catching on a reduced bore or other interior projection in the valve. A requirement in API 6D gate valves is that their inside bore dimensions are precisely specified to allow this passage of pigs.

vmfall11_pipeline_sidebarWith the advent of quality pipeline ball valves over the past few decades, sales of pipeline gate valves have fallen. Meanwhile, pipeline ball valves, which are trunnion style, are now making inroads in all types of pipeline service, particularly in natural gas. Still, holdouts exist.

“Some companies are staunchly entrenched in the gate valve,” according to David Fehrenkamp, a senior sales engineer with Cameron. He also adds that “in many natural gas pipeline operations, quarter-turn has taken over 100%.”

So why do many pipeline owners favor the gate valve for pipeline service? Product pipelines that carry fluids such as gasoline, distillates, diesel fuel and other finished petroleum products are a popular place for the rough and ready gate valve. “We use slab gate valves for most of our main line valves, but we do use expanding gate valves on our product line from Texas City to Pasadena,” says Billy Daigle, maintenance services specialist for Marathon Pipe Line LLC (MPL). “We use expanding gate valves for station isolation valves and pig launchers. Pig launcher and receiver service is harder on valves because of the debris from the pigging operation, so we choose expanding gates because of their toughness,” he adds.

vmfall11_pipeline2Ball, check and manifold valves are commonly used in pipeline service.

The quarter-turn vs. gate valve debate gets hotter when cost becomes the prime factor for selection. The quarter-turn trunnion pipeline ball valve is much cheaper to make than the jumbo-sized gate valves, with their large and expensive body castings. Another factor that tips the pendulum toward quarter-turn pipeline valves is the availability and delivery of quarter-turn products. Because drilling in the shale plays across the country is exploding in terms of how fast it’s occurring, Fehrenkamp says the requests from customers for delivery time is “rush, rush, rush, I need it now!” A domestically produced trunnion pipeline ball valve can be built in roughly four weeks, which is about the time needed to get a good gate valve casting under the luckiest of circumstances. An additional four to six weeks might then be required to complete the gate valve machining, assembly and testing.

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