10182017Wed
Last updateTue, 17 Oct 2017 3pm

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Is it Time to Toss Those Commissions?

Is it Time to Toss Those Commissions?

It’s tough to pinpoint exactly wha...

Cybersecurity for Process Control

Cybersecurity for Process Control

Security for any process plant has alway...

Young Valve Professionals: Megan Johnston

Young Valve Professionals: Megan Johnston

In 2014, VMA's leadership created the Val...

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Industry Headlines

Shale Gas Leading to Billions in Chemical Investments

Tuesday, 17 October 2017  |  Chris Guy

After years of high and volatile natural gas prices, new domestic supplies of more affordable natural gas and natural gas liquids (NGLs) have created ...

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Industry Headlines

ValvTechnologies Receives ISO 15848 Certification

16 HOURS AGO

ValvTechnologies’ EcoPack technology has received ISO 15848-1:2015 certification from Odin Heavy Industries. To earn ISO 15848 certification, ValvTechnologies underwent a stringent evaluation process that included a series of 17 helium leak tests and eight thermal cycles on a fully assembled v...

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Emerson Acquires GeoFields, Inc.

5 DAYS AGO

Emerson has acquired GeoFields, Inc., a global supplier of software and implementation services for pipeline integrity data collection, management and risk analysis for the oil and gas industry. GeoFields software enables pipeline operators to collect critical integrity data, perform risk modeling a...

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Shale Gas Leading to Billions in Chemical Investments

16 HOURS AGO

After years of high and volatile natural gas prices, new domestic supplies of more affordable natural gas and natural gas liquids (NGLs) have created a competitive advantage for U.S. chemical manufacturers, leading to greater investment, industry growth and new jobs. Companies from around the world ...

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Oil Demand May Peak in the Near Future

1 DAY AGO

Demand for oil in developed countries will revert to structural decline by 2020, wiping out about four million barrels per day by 2035. In contrast, developing economies will increase their demand for oil by nearly 16 million barrels per day by 2035.

While transport demand will flat-line around 2030,...

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Empire State Index at Highest Level Since 2014

18 HOURS AGO

Business activity grew at a robust pace in New York State, according to firms responding to the October 2017 Empire State Manufacturing Survey. The headline general business conditions index climbed six points to 30.2, its highest level in three years. The new orders index came in at 18.0 and the ship...

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Consumer Confidence Rises in October

1 DAY AGO

The University of Michigan Index of Consumer Sentiment surged in early October, reaching its highest level since the start of 2004. The data indicate a robust outlook for consumer spending that extends the current expansion to at least mid-2018, which would mark the second longest expansion since the ...

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Process Control Goes Green

Oil and natural gas operators can help reduce methane and other emissions—and increase revenue—by replacing traditional pneumatic devices with energy-responsible pneumatic pressure and level control devices.

 

An estimated $20 billion or more in revenue is lost each year globally due to methane emissions. Coupled with this lost revenue, global greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), of which methane comprises a substantial portion, have been gaining ever increasing visibility from a variety of agencies, special interest groups, national and international companies, politicians and the general public. It’s clear that a substantial problem exists. Many companies, however, are looking to alleviate that problem by changing their methods of operations and sharing best practices with each other.

THE METHANE FACTOR

Countless studies have analyzed the net effects greenhouse gases have on our environment and have resulted in a diverse range of views on the subject. However, one accepted fact is that methane is the most potent of the global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Each year significant amounts of methane—the primary constituent of natural gas—are emitted into the atmosphere. These emissions cause concern because of the increasing negative effects on the environment as a whole, as well as the large amounts of revenue lost as a result. The importance of reducing methane emissions cannot be understated; but with innovative technology and implementation of best practices, the entire world’s industries can shift toward using more environmentally responsible products for process control functions. This shift in thinking will also result in cost savings and increased revenue.

Many owners and operators at oil and gas production, processing and transmission facilities have already taken initiatives to eliminate or reduce methane emissions. One shining example, which illustrates the widespread collaboration among companies, is the EPA Natural Gas STAR program. This program is a voluntary partnership between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and numerous natural gas companies, which provides a way to share best practices for reducing emissions among member companies. Currently, the program includes 23 of the top 25 natural gas producing companies which constitute 62% of the production, processing, transmission and distribution of natural gas. It also constitutes 62% of the production, processing, transmission and distribution of natural gas. As Figure 1 illustrates, in the 14 years since the program was established, more than 577 billion cubic feet of methane emissions, at a value of $3.4 billion, have been eliminated through voluntary initiatives by the member companies—initiatives that have also provided these companies cost savings and increased operational efficiency.(1)

This article provides examples of opportunities to reduce methane emissions in oil and natural gas applications, and highlights the significant cost savings that can be realized by implementing available technologies in the process control market. The primary methane emissions mitigation method discussed in this article is identification and replacement of high-bleed pneumatic pressure and level control devices.

PNEUMATIC CONTROL DEVICE BASICS

Continuous bleed pneumatic controllers are used in the oil and natural gas industry to regulate level, flow-rate, temperature or pressure. Given the infrastructure for installing these devices, natural gas may be the only option for a supply medium in places where it is not possible, economical or convenient for installing compressed air systems.
Nearly all pneumatic devices use the same basic design principle, which consists of a nozzle-flapper mechanism (Figure 2, left) that executes throttling control and exhibits continuous or intermittent bleed of the supply medium. Varying the separation between the flapper and nozzle alters the resistance to gas flow. Increasing the distance between the nozzle and the flapper reduces nozzle resistance and output pressure, while decreasing the distance has the opposite effect. In most pneumatic devices that use this concept, the inherent design of the nozzle flapper mechanism is the only reason the supply medium bleeds to the atmosphere.

Controllers that use a three-way valve for proportional band control also introduce another way for supply gas to bleed to the atmosphere (Figure 2, right). Some pneumatic controllers are designed to bleed only when the unit is in transient operation, or cycling, while others bleed both during steady-state conditions and transients. The steady-state bleed tends to dominate the emissions reduction focus; however, consumption during transients should not be underestimated because of the potentially significant effect on the total amount of gas consumed by the device.

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