06272017Tue
Last updateTue, 27 Jun 2017 5pm

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Lubricants: Always Important—Sometimes Essential

Lubricants: Always Important—Sometimes Essential

Most valve professionals take more notic...

Why Air Valves are Needed in Water Applications

Why Air Valves are Needed in Water Applications

Air valves are hydromechanical devices d...

Achieving Profitability Through Maintenance Management

Achieving Profitability Through Maintenance Management

One of the distinctions between maintena...

Control Valve Positioner Performance Diagnostics

Control Valve Positioner Performance Diagnostics

There has been discussion for some years...

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Industry Headlines

Emerson in Talks to Acquire Software Company Paradigm Ltd.

-1 DAYS AGO

According to Bloomberg , Emerson is in talks to acquire software company Paradigm Ltd. for approximately $1.5 billion.

“Paradigm specializes in seismic data interpretation and imaging equipment to help oil and gas companies know where to drill. The logic of such a deal seems sound and will help Eme...

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VMA Members Lead MDM Top Industrial PVF Distributors List

23 HOURS AGO

Modern Distribution Management (MDM) recently published its Top Distributors list for 2017. Four of the top 5 distributors in the Industrial PVF category ; MRC Global, NOW Inc., Wolseley Industrial Group and FloWorks International; are currently VMA members.

“While oil & gas markets have start...

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Mountain Valley Pipeline Gets Environmental Approval

-1 DAYS AGO

The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) determined that construction and operation of the Mountain Valley Pipeline would result in some adverse environmental impacts, but the majority of these impacts would be reduced to less-than-significant levels. This determination is based on a review o...

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Delta Chemical Plant Planned for Houston Area

18 HOURS AGO

Braskem will commit up to $675 million in investment capital towards the design and construction of a new facility, named Delta, located next to Braskem's existing production facilities. Construction is expected to begin mid-summer, with the final phase of main construction targeted for the first qu...

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U.S. Durable Goods Orders Fell the Most in 18 Months

-1 DAYS AGO

New orders for manufactured durable goods in May decreased $2.5 billion or 1.1% to $228.2 billion, the U.S. Department of Commerce announced. This decrease, down two consecutive months, followed a 0.9% April decrease. Excluding transportation, new orders increased 0.1%. Excluding defense, new orders...

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Texas Manufacturers See 12th Consecutive Month of Growth

-1 DAYS AGO

Texas factory activity increased in June, according to the Texas Manufacturing Outlook Survey. The production index, a key measure of state manufacturing conditions, fell 11 points to 12.3, indicating output grew but at a slower pace than in May.

Other measures of current manufacturing activity also i...

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Process Control Goes Green

Oil and natural gas operators can help reduce methane and other emissions—and increase revenue—by replacing traditional pneumatic devices with energy-responsible pneumatic pressure and level control devices.

 

An estimated $20 billion or more in revenue is lost each year globally due to methane emissions. Coupled with this lost revenue, global greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), of which methane comprises a substantial portion, have been gaining ever increasing visibility from a variety of agencies, special interest groups, national and international companies, politicians and the general public. It’s clear that a substantial problem exists. Many companies, however, are looking to alleviate that problem by changing their methods of operations and sharing best practices with each other.

THE METHANE FACTOR

Countless studies have analyzed the net effects greenhouse gases have on our environment and have resulted in a diverse range of views on the subject. However, one accepted fact is that methane is the most potent of the global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Each year significant amounts of methane—the primary constituent of natural gas—are emitted into the atmosphere. These emissions cause concern because of the increasing negative effects on the environment as a whole, as well as the large amounts of revenue lost as a result. The importance of reducing methane emissions cannot be understated; but with innovative technology and implementation of best practices, the entire world’s industries can shift toward using more environmentally responsible products for process control functions. This shift in thinking will also result in cost savings and increased revenue.

Many owners and operators at oil and gas production, processing and transmission facilities have already taken initiatives to eliminate or reduce methane emissions. One shining example, which illustrates the widespread collaboration among companies, is the EPA Natural Gas STAR program. This program is a voluntary partnership between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and numerous natural gas companies, which provides a way to share best practices for reducing emissions among member companies. Currently, the program includes 23 of the top 25 natural gas producing companies which constitute 62% of the production, processing, transmission and distribution of natural gas. It also constitutes 62% of the production, processing, transmission and distribution of natural gas. As Figure 1 illustrates, in the 14 years since the program was established, more than 577 billion cubic feet of methane emissions, at a value of $3.4 billion, have been eliminated through voluntary initiatives by the member companies—initiatives that have also provided these companies cost savings and increased operational efficiency.(1)

This article provides examples of opportunities to reduce methane emissions in oil and natural gas applications, and highlights the significant cost savings that can be realized by implementing available technologies in the process control market. The primary methane emissions mitigation method discussed in this article is identification and replacement of high-bleed pneumatic pressure and level control devices.

PNEUMATIC CONTROL DEVICE BASICS

Continuous bleed pneumatic controllers are used in the oil and natural gas industry to regulate level, flow-rate, temperature or pressure. Given the infrastructure for installing these devices, natural gas may be the only option for a supply medium in places where it is not possible, economical or convenient for installing compressed air systems.
Nearly all pneumatic devices use the same basic design principle, which consists of a nozzle-flapper mechanism (Figure 2, left) that executes throttling control and exhibits continuous or intermittent bleed of the supply medium. Varying the separation between the flapper and nozzle alters the resistance to gas flow. Increasing the distance between the nozzle and the flapper reduces nozzle resistance and output pressure, while decreasing the distance has the opposite effect. In most pneumatic devices that use this concept, the inherent design of the nozzle flapper mechanism is the only reason the supply medium bleeds to the atmosphere.

Controllers that use a three-way valve for proportional band control also introduce another way for supply gas to bleed to the atmosphere (Figure 2, right). Some pneumatic controllers are designed to bleed only when the unit is in transient operation, or cycling, while others bleed both during steady-state conditions and transients. The steady-state bleed tends to dominate the emissions reduction focus; however, consumption during transients should not be underestimated because of the potentially significant effect on the total amount of gas consumed by the device.

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