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Basics of Elastomeric Seal Design

Basics of Elastomeric Seal Design

Engineers need critical design informati...

Wastewater Treatment

Wastewater Treatment

Society’s desire for a clean envir...

Controlling Our Water Systems, Part II

Controlling Our Water Systems, Part II

To better understand the actuators and c...

Controlling Our Water Systems

Controlling Our Water Systems

Actuators and controls are a critical pr...

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Industry Headlines

ExxonMobil Expanding Beaumont, TX Facility

Thursday, 28 July 2016  |  Chris Guy

ExxonMobil has plans to increase production of ultra-low sulfur fuels at its Beaumont, TX refinery by approximately 40,000 barrels per day, representi...

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Industry Headlines

ValvTechnologies Names Bryant Holt Industry Director, Fossil Power

17 HOURS AGO
ValvTechnologies Names Bryant Holt Industry Director, Fossil Power

ValvTechnologies, Inc. has appointed Bryant Holt as industry director for the company’s fossil power division. Holt will succeed George Stover, who has served in this role since 2014.

Based in Houston, Holt will have global management responsibility for ValvTechnologies’ fossil power group ...

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Crane Co. Reports Second Quarter 2016 Results

1 DAY AGO

Crane Co. reported second quarter 2016 GAAP earnings of $1.15 per diluted share, compared to $0.95 per share in the second quarter of 2015. Excluding Special Items, second quarter 2016 earnings per diluted share were $1.21, compared to $1.06 per share in the second quarter of 2015.

Second quarter 2016 ...

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ExxonMobil Expanding Beaumont, TX Facility

-1 DAYS AGO

ExxonMobil has plans to increase production of ultra-low sulfur fuels at its Beaumont, TX refinery by approximately 40,000 barrels per day, representing an investment of approximately $450 million.

Construction is scheduled during the second half of 2016 to install a selective cat naphtha hydrofining u...

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LNG’s Surge from Decade-Low Seen Fizzling as Supply Ramps Up

20 HOURS AGO

“LNG’s surge is running out of gas. Liquefied natural gas in Asia, which was in such over-supply that prices in Japan fell to a decade-low in April, has risen by almost half in the past three months as production outages stifled supply, demand rose in places like China and India and a co...

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U.S. Durable Goods Orders Down 4% in June

21 HOURS AGO

New orders for manufactured durable goods in June decreased $9.3 billion or 4.0% to $219.8 billion, the U.S. Department of Commerce announced. This decrease , down two consecutive months, followed a 2.8% May decrease. Excluding transportation, new orders decreased 0.5%. Excluding defense, new orders d...

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Sharpest Rise in U.S. Manufacturing Production Since November

2 DAYS AGO

July data signaled a further rebound in business conditions across the U.S. manufacturing sector, led by a robust expansion of incoming new work and the fastest upturn in production volumes for eight months. Job creation also strengthened in July, with the latest increase in payroll numbers the fast...

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Process Control Goes Green

Oil and natural gas operators can help reduce methane and other emissions—and increase revenue—by replacing traditional pneumatic devices with energy-responsible pneumatic pressure and level control devices.

 

An estimated $20 billion or more in revenue is lost each year globally due to methane emissions. Coupled with this lost revenue, global greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), of which methane comprises a substantial portion, have been gaining ever increasing visibility from a variety of agencies, special interest groups, national and international companies, politicians and the general public. It’s clear that a substantial problem exists. Many companies, however, are looking to alleviate that problem by changing their methods of operations and sharing best practices with each other.

THE METHANE FACTOR

Countless studies have analyzed the net effects greenhouse gases have on our environment and have resulted in a diverse range of views on the subject. However, one accepted fact is that methane is the most potent of the global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Each year significant amounts of methane—the primary constituent of natural gas—are emitted into the atmosphere. These emissions cause concern because of the increasing negative effects on the environment as a whole, as well as the large amounts of revenue lost as a result. The importance of reducing methane emissions cannot be understated; but with innovative technology and implementation of best practices, the entire world’s industries can shift toward using more environmentally responsible products for process control functions. This shift in thinking will also result in cost savings and increased revenue.

Many owners and operators at oil and gas production, processing and transmission facilities have already taken initiatives to eliminate or reduce methane emissions. One shining example, which illustrates the widespread collaboration among companies, is the EPA Natural Gas STAR program. This program is a voluntary partnership between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and numerous natural gas companies, which provides a way to share best practices for reducing emissions among member companies. Currently, the program includes 23 of the top 25 natural gas producing companies which constitute 62% of the production, processing, transmission and distribution of natural gas. It also constitutes 62% of the production, processing, transmission and distribution of natural gas. As Figure 1 illustrates, in the 14 years since the program was established, more than 577 billion cubic feet of methane emissions, at a value of $3.4 billion, have been eliminated through voluntary initiatives by the member companies—initiatives that have also provided these companies cost savings and increased operational efficiency.(1)

This article provides examples of opportunities to reduce methane emissions in oil and natural gas applications, and highlights the significant cost savings that can be realized by implementing available technologies in the process control market. The primary methane emissions mitigation method discussed in this article is identification and replacement of high-bleed pneumatic pressure and level control devices.

PNEUMATIC CONTROL DEVICE BASICS

Continuous bleed pneumatic controllers are used in the oil and natural gas industry to regulate level, flow-rate, temperature or pressure. Given the infrastructure for installing these devices, natural gas may be the only option for a supply medium in places where it is not possible, economical or convenient for installing compressed air systems.
Nearly all pneumatic devices use the same basic design principle, which consists of a nozzle-flapper mechanism (Figure 2, left) that executes throttling control and exhibits continuous or intermittent bleed of the supply medium. Varying the separation between the flapper and nozzle alters the resistance to gas flow. Increasing the distance between the nozzle and the flapper reduces nozzle resistance and output pressure, while decreasing the distance has the opposite effect. In most pneumatic devices that use this concept, the inherent design of the nozzle flapper mechanism is the only reason the supply medium bleeds to the atmosphere.

Controllers that use a three-way valve for proportional band control also introduce another way for supply gas to bleed to the atmosphere (Figure 2, right). Some pneumatic controllers are designed to bleed only when the unit is in transient operation, or cycling, while others bleed both during steady-state conditions and transients. The steady-state bleed tends to dominate the emissions reduction focus; however, consumption during transients should not be underestimated because of the potentially significant effect on the total amount of gas consumed by the device.

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