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Achieving Predictable Valve Performance for Safety Applications

Achieving Predictable Valve Performance for Safety Applications

A focus on having the proper specificati...

Putting Servo Valves Back to Work

Putting Servo Valves Back to Work

Industries as varied as paper production...

Corrosion and Fouling: Is There a Solution?

Corrosion and Fouling: Is There a Solution?

According to a 1998 study released by the ...

Valves with All the Trimmings

Valves with All the Trimmings

The term valve trim has been around for ...

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Industry Headlines

Strong Momentum for M&A Activity in the Chemical Industry

Monday, 19 February 2018  |  Chris Guy

Global chemical mergers and acquisitions (M&A) activity in 2018 is expected to remain strong, as higher valuations continue to be mitigated by imp...

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Valve Positioners Offer Improved Control Valve Performance

Valve Positioners Offer Improved Control Valve Performance

Monday, 19 February 2018  |  David Matherly

From time to time, we are re-posting well-received or particularly valuable articles that have previously run on VALVEMagazine.com so that those who m...

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Industry Headlines

ValvTechnologies ITC 2018 Recap

2 DAYS AGO

The biennial ValvTechnologies’ International Technical Conference and Users Group (ITC) was held on February 8-9 in Houston. Seeking to educate, inspire and engage attendees over a two-day period, the event brought together hundreds of attendees from across the globe to share valuable insight ...

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Matthew Davis Named Field Service Manager at Weir

4 DAYS AGO

Weir Valves & Controls USA (WVC USA) has appointed Matthew Davis to the position of field service manager. In his new role, Davis will be responsible for managing the WVC USA Field Service crew and organizing WVC Service jobs for power plants worldwide.

Davis joins WVC USA with over 20 years of ex...

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Strong Momentum for M&A Activity in the Chemical Industry

-1 DAYS AGO

Global chemical mergers and acquisitions (M&A) activity in 2018 is expected to remain strong, as higher valuations continue to be mitigated by improving global economic conditions, continued inexpensive financing, and an appetite amongst industry participants for growth and transformative M&...

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TransCanada Turns Attention to Natural Gas System

3 DAYS AGO

TransCanada Corp. will move forward with a $1.9 billion expansion of its NGTL System to connect incremental supply and expand basin export capacity by one billion cubic feet of natural gas per day at the interconnection with its Canadian Mainline. NGTL expects to begin construction in 2019.

The increme...

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Construction Starts in 2017 Decline 7%

-1 DAYS AGO

Many of the leading U.S. metropolitan areas for commercial and multifamily construction starts showed reduced activity in 2017 compared to levels reported during 2016, according to Dodge Data & Analytics. Of the top ten markets ranked by the dollar amount of construction starts, seven registered...

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Philly Fed: Manufacturing Activity Expanded Solidly

2 HOURS AGO

The index for manufacturing activity in the Philadelphia Federal Reserve region increased 4 points in February to a reading of 25.8. The index has stayed within a relatively narrow range over the past nine months. Nearly 41% of the firms indicated increases in activity this month, while 15% reported...

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Indices that Measure Water Scaling

materials_q_and_a_graphicQ: Why do my carbon steel valves and piping corrode when the Langlier index says they shouldn’t?

 

A: There are a variety of indexes that measure the scaling ­tendency of water and the Langlier index is probably one of the more recognized and utilized. Notice I said that the index measures the scaling tendency of water, so there is really no direct correlation between the Langlier index and any of the other indices to the actual corrosion rate of steel in water. The belief that these indexes determine the corrosivity of water stems from the assumption that a scale-forming water will be protective to carbon steel whereas a non-scaling water will be corrosive.

 

Water’s Scaling Tendencies

Many people assume that water is not very corrosive but a water’s chemistry can vary considerably, and depending on its given chemistry it can be very corrosive to cast iron and carbon steel. In addition to corrosion another issue associated with a water’s tendency to cause scaling is its affect on a heat exchanger’s efficiency.

To determine a water’s scaling tendency, several indices or formulas have been developed over the years, with each considering different variables of a water’s chemistry. The more common indexes are the Langlier Saturation Index (LSI), the Ryznar Stability Index (RSI) and the Puckorious Scaling Index (PSI)... and, no, I am not making up these names! The following will explain how each of is determined.

LSI = pH – pHs

The LSI index, developed by Dr. Langlier in 1936, considers factors of a water’s tendency to be in equilibrium with calcium carbonate. Calcium carbonate is just one of many minerals or elements that can be found in water and is the one responsible for forming calcareous deposits. The LSI considers the effects of calcium, total alkalinity, dissolved solids and temperature to arrive at a computed pH shown as pHs in the formula. Determining pHs manually is mathematically onerous, but fortunately there are websites that let you plug in the water chemistry and then pHs is calculated for you. Once pHs is known, simply subtract it from the water’s actual pH and if the result is positive then the water will be scaling; conversely, if the number is negative the water will tend to dissolve calcium carbonate.

RSI = 2 pHs – pH

John Ryznar developed a modification of the Langlier index in 1944 upon realizing that it was possible for both low- and high-hardness waters to have the same LSI. By reversing the placement of pH and pHs in the formula the RSI always results in a positive number. The pHs for the RSI is determined by the actual pH and the concentration of the calcium and bicarbonate ions, total dissolved solids and temperature. This calculation for pHs can also be found on the web so you just have to plug in the appropriate variables to determine pHs. A RSI less than 5 should be scaling, whereas a RSI above 7 will produce little, if any, scale.

PSI = 2pHs – pHeq

The next improvement of the scaling index was developed by Paul Puckorius. The Puckorius Scaling Index is also called the Practical Scaling Index, which I suppose makes it sound a little more credible! The PSI accounts for two additional variables that the other indices do not: the buffering capacity of water and the maximum quantity of precipitate that brings water to equilibrium. Therefore, the PSI uses an equilibrium pH rather than the actual pH to account for the buffering effect. The equilibrium pH (pHeq) = 1.465 log (M alkalinity) + 4.54. The numbers resulting from this formula are the same as the RSI index so a value less than 5 will be scaling and a number greater than 7 will result in little, if any, scaling.

Another Method to Control Scaling

One method used to control scaling is to lower the pH as this lowers a water’s alkalinity. So it is to be expected that a scaling index should account for this change, which the LSI and RSI do, but not the PSI. However, be careful in lowering the pH much below 6, because this will result in significant general corrosion of carbon steel and cast iron.

So which index is best to use?

Tests done for a variety of waters found that the LSI seemed to be more reliable in predicting scaling tendency, but there is no guarantee that scaling will or will not occur. Keep in mind these indices were never intended to be predictors of corrosion for carbon steel or cast iron but rather a tendency for water to develop scale or not. As much as we would like to have a simple formula to tell us whether a given water chemistry will be corrosive to steel, there are other variables—such as dissolved oxygen, chlorides and sulfate ions—that influence the corrosion of steel.


Thomas Spence is director of materials engineering for Flowserve Corp. (www.flowserve.com), Dayton, OH. Reach him at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..

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