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Achieving Predictable Valve Performance for Safety Applications

Achieving Predictable Valve Performance for Safety Applications

A focus on having the proper specificati...

Putting Servo Valves Back to Work

Putting Servo Valves Back to Work

Industries as varied as paper production...

Corrosion and Fouling: Is There a Solution?

Corrosion and Fouling: Is There a Solution?

According to a 1998 study released by the ...

Valves with All the Trimmings

Valves with All the Trimmings

The term valve trim has been around for ...

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Industry Headlines

Date Set for Largest Oil & Gas Lease Sale in U.S. History

Tuesday, 20 February 2018  |  Chris Guy

Deputy Secretary of the Interior David Bernhardt announced that the Department will offer 77.3 million acres offshore Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, A...

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Valve Positioners Offer Improved Control Valve Performance

Valve Positioners Offer Improved Control Valve Performance

Monday, 19 February 2018  |  David Matherly

From time to time, we are re-posting well-received or particularly valuable articles that have previously run on VALVEMagazine.com so that those who m...

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Industry Headlines

Curtiss-Wright Acquires Dresser-Rand Government Business

-1 DAYS AGO

Curtiss-Wright has entered into an agreement to acquire the assets that comprise the Dresser-Rand Government Business (Dresser-Rand), a business unit of Siemens Government Technologies, for $212.5 million in cash.

Dresser-Rand designs and manufactures mission-critical, high-speed rotating equipment sol...

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ValvTechnologies ITC 2018 Recap

3 DAYS AGO

The biennial ValvTechnologies’ International Technical Conference and Users Group (ITC) was held on February 8-9 in Houston. Seeking to educate, inspire and engage attendees over a two-day period, the event brought together hundreds of attendees from across the globe to share valuable insight ...

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Date Set for Largest Oil & Gas Lease Sale in U.S. History

-1 DAYS AGO

Deputy Secretary of the Interior David Bernhardt announced that the Department will offer 77.3 million acres offshore Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida for oil and gas exploration and development. The region-wide lease sale, which is the largest in U.S. history, is scheduled for Ma...

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Strong Momentum for M&A Activity in the Chemical Industry

20 HOURS AGO

Global chemical mergers and acquisitions (M&A) activity in 2018 is expected to remain strong, as higher valuations continue to be mitigated by improving global economic conditions, continued inexpensive financing, and an appetite amongst industry participants for growth and transformative M&...

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Construction Starts in 2017 Decline 7%

21 HOURS AGO

Many of the leading U.S. metropolitan areas for commercial and multifamily construction starts showed reduced activity in 2017 compared to levels reported during 2016, according to Dodge Data & Analytics. Of the top ten markets ranked by the dollar amount of construction starts, seven registered...

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Philly Fed: Manufacturing Activity Expanded Solidly

1 DAY AGO

The index for manufacturing activity in the Philadelphia Federal Reserve region increased 4 points in February to a reading of 25.8. The index has stayed within a relatively narrow range over the past nine months. Nearly 41% of the firms indicated increases in activity this month, while 15% reported...

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Standards Spring from the Need to Protect

vmspr12_anniv_1Inspection personnel are checking dimensions of finished components to ensure compliance to newly published valve standards.

Most of us in the valve industry take for granted the interchangeability and standardization of the valves produced today. Yet it wasn’t that long ago that valves were individually produced in accordance with the standards of each manufacturer.

Things like end-to-end dimensions, flange sizes and bolt circles, and even pressure ratings, were left up to the engineering and production departments of each company. Such factors were addressed in due time; however, as with many drivers in the manufacturing world, the first valve standard to be drafted covered something much more important—life and death.

Back in the latter half of the 19th century, boiler explosions were occurring at an alarming frequency, and public outcry was heard throughout the land—it appeared that the steam-fired industrial revolution was threatening to literally blow itself up.

In 1880, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) was formed and over the next few decades this group of engineers created the first iteration of the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (B&PVC). The problem of inconsistent boiler integrity was high on the group’s list of topics to be addressed. While the code initially dealt with a number of issues concerning materials and construction, it ­wasn’t until the 1914 edition of the B&PVC that safety valves were covered. It would be the first time in ­history that makers of safety valves had agreed to common standards for their products.

These groundbreaking safety valve rules and regulations would be honed over the years and are still actively supported today by a group in ASME called the National Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspectors.


vmspr12_anniv_7Power plants created the first need for valve standardization.A PUSH FORWARD

The industrial growth during the first years of the 20th century highlighted the need for valve and piping standardization throughout the world of manufacturing. The Henry Ford automobile assembly line techniques were adopted by many industries, including valve and fitting manufacturers. While products were flying off the assembly lines at record rates, there was no interchangeability between manufacturers’ products. You only have to look at catalogs of the day—product images show valves with blank flanges, devoid of bolt holes—to see that something was missing. The something was flange standards. Back then, it was up to the purchaser to provide the bolt-hole drilling information.

vmspr12_anniv_2In days past, customers had to specify the flange drilling they required because there were no standards to follow.This lack of interchangeability resulted in a Committee of Manufacturers on Standardization of Pipe Fittings and Valves, which was formed in 1912. The group would later become the Manufacturers Standardization Society (MSS); it published its first pamphlet on pipe schedules of flanges and flanged fittings in October of 1912 and additional flange standards over the next few years. The official creation of MSS in 1924 opened the door for many valve standards over the next nine decades. During that time, numerous standards originally developed by MSS would be adopted by other organizations, such as ASME and the American Petroleum Institute (API).

vmspr12_anniv_3This check valve and globe valve installed in a 1942-era warship have been built to recently standardized end-to-end dimensions to ensure interchangeability.The American Standards Association committee B16, Sectional Committee on the Standardization of Pipe Flanges & Fittings, was created in 1921. It would later spawn other B16 committees of great importance to the valve industry. For example, one of the issues tackled by this B16 group was the lack of valve end-to-end standards. A 1927 charter to create common end-to-end standards was beset by many difficulties, not the least of which was the economic downturn of the 1930s. In 1937, the group finally adopted a proposal MSS originally put forth in 1931. This document would later become ASME/ANSI B16.10, Face-to-Face and End-to-End Dimensions of Valves.

In 1936 API, in response to the huge growth in the oil and gas business, published 5-G-1, Pipeline Valves. Following the turmoil of World War II, API 5-G-1 would be expanded into the first edition of API 6D, at the time titled Iron and Steel Flanged Gate, Plug and Check Valves for Pipeline Service.

Probably the most familiar standard in the industrial valve business today is API 600, which covers steel valves for refinery service. When first published in 1939, the document was titled API Standard on Flanged Steel, Outside Screw and Yoke, Wedge Gate Valves. The API 600 document exists today as Steel Gate Valves, Flanged and Butt-welding Ends, Bolted Bonnets.

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