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How to Choose the Best Rapid Prototyping Method

How to Choose the Best Rapid Prototyping Method

As new products are designed, including ...

Monitoring Valve Health via the Internet

Monitoring Valve Health via the Internet

Most valve end users are already using s...

Valves in Oxygen Service

Valves in Oxygen Service

In his presentation at VMA’s 2017 ...

Thermal Spray Coating

Thermal Spray Coating

Q: What are the pros and cons of us...

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Industry Headlines

Crane Co. Reports Second Quarter Results

Tuesday, 25 July 2017  |  Chris Guy

Crane Co. reported second quarter 2017 earnings of $1.14 per diluted share, compared to $1.15 per share in the second quarter of 2016. Excluding Specia...

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The Actuation Selection Process

The Actuation Selection Process

Tuesday, 25 July 2017  |  Carlos Gamero

A common misconception in our industry is that actuating a valve is as simple as putting the most cost-efficient actuator on top of your valve of choi...

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Industry Headlines

Crane Co. Reports Second Quarter Results

-1 DAYS AGO

Crane Co. reported second quarter 2017 earnings of $1.14 per diluted share, compared to $1.15 per share in the second quarter of 2016. Excluding Special Items, second quarter 2017 earnings per diluted share were $1.17, compared to $1.21 per share in the second quarter of 2016.

Second quarter 2017 sale...

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Badger Alloys Joins VMA as Associate Member

7 DAYS AGO

This week the Valve Manufacturers Association (VMA) welcomes Badger Alloys as an official associate supplier member. This is VMA’s fourth new member in 2017.

Located in the heart of Milwaukee and founded in 1966, Badger Alloys offers single source capabilities for custom castings. The company pou...

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U.S. Chemical Production Moved Higher in June

28 MINS AGO

According to the American Chemistry Council (ACC), the U.S. Chemical Production Regional Index (U.S. CPRI) edged higher by 0.3% in June, following a 0.3% gain in May, and a 0.4% decline in April, as measured on a three-month moving average (3MMA) basis. During June, output grew in all regions except t...

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U.S. Fuel Ethanol Production Continues to Grow in 2017

1 DAY AGO

Through the first six months of 2017, U.S. weekly ethanol production averaged 1.02 million barrels per day (b/d), an increase of 5% over the same period in 2016. On a weekly basis, U.S. ethanol production set a record of 1.06 million b/d in the week of January 27, 2017, and it has averaged near or a...

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IHS Market PMI Index Reached Four-Month High in July

3 HOURS AGO

July data revealed a further acceleration in business activity growth across the U.S. private sector. At 54.2, up from 53.9 in June, the seasonally adjusted IHS Markit Flash U.S. Composite PMI Output Index signaled the strongest rate of expansion since January.

The pickup in business activity growth ...

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IMF Lowers 2017 Growth Forecast for U.S.

1 DAY AGO

The growth forecast in the United States has been revised down from 2.3% to 2.1% in 2017 and from 2.5% to 2.1% in 2018, according to the IMF’s World Economic Outlook. While the markdown in the 2017 forecast reflects in part the weak growth outturn in the first quarter of the year, the major fa...

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Specialized Designs for Pipeline Valve Actuation

Expansion of oil and gas production into remote and inhospitable areas of the world challenges actuator manufacturers to produce rugged, reliable and often specialized products to meet the pipeline industry’s needs.

 

A number of specialized designs of valve actuators have been developed over the years to cope with specific valve control demands that are found in the pipeline industry. Examples include gas-over-oil, high-pressure gas and electro-hydraulic actuators, as well as specialized hydraulic actuators designed for subsea valves.

While the fundamental principles of design for these actuators are well established, rapidly advancing technologies, increasing demands for reliability, reduced maintenance and automation from end-user industries continue to present manufacturers with new challenges. In addition, the expansion of oil and gas production into increasingly remote and previously unreachable areas, combined with the growth of strategic pipeline distribution networks across remote and inhospitable landscapes, places further pressure on the manufacturer to provide rugged and reliable valve actuation solutions.


Testing for Reliability in the Extreme

The importance of testing cannot be over emphasized, not only to prove the long-term performance and reliability of products, but also to gain specific approvals from end-user markets without which it would be difficult or even impossible to bid on projects.

Some major equipment manufacturers’ testing policies are designed to reassure the customer that the quality of its product range is first class through the achievement of internationally recognized quality assurance approvals for design and manufacture.

Running in parallel with these assessments, equipment manufacturers also subject their products to the test procedures required for end-user approvals in specific markets and industrial disciplines. In these areas there have been significant market-led increases in activity in recent years.

In addition to the hyperbaric testing of subsea actuators and performance verification of gas-over-oil actuators mentioned later in this article, testing programs in recent years have expanded to include specific tests such as:

  • IP66M/67M, dust, water jet, immersion and deluge testing of pneumatic actuators
  • Shell qualification for hydraulic and pneumatic actuators
  • Transco qualification for hydraulic actuators
  • HIPPS (high integrity pressure protection systems) qualification for control systems
  • GOST Russian Certificate of Conformity and Federal Use Permit
  • ABS (American Bureau of Shipping)

These are in addition to ATEX explosion-proof certification, PED (European Pressure Equipment Directive) approval and SIL (safety integrity level) assessments that also apply to pipeline actuation products.


Subsea Actuators, Testing In-depth

Subsea valve applications, which often involve vital fail-safe and associated safety-related duties, represent an area of technology demanding the very highest levels of quality and product integrity to ensure reliable long-term performance. It may be prudent to not only test to API (American Petroleum Institute) qualification but also to achieve third-party-witnessed hyperbaric approval to the international qualification procedure ST-028.

In one API test performed by a major equipment manufacturer, a scotch-yoke hydraulic actuator with ROV (remote-operated vehicle) override was operated in a hyperbaric chamber under an external pressure of 3600 psi (240bar-g) to represent the submerged qualification depth of 2,400 meters over a period of six weeks. The actuator was selected as a representative sample of all the company’s subsea actuators for the purpose of the testing, which was witnessed by a third-party inspector. The severity of the testing reflects the crucial nature of subsea actuator duties and the increasing depths at which actuators are expected to perform as exploration moves into new, more remote offshore fields.

In the ST-028 hyperbaric test a similar hydraulic actuator fitted with a limit switchbox was subjected to cyclic testing to prove its suitability for submerged installation at a depth of 45 meters. The witnessed testing included pressurizing the switchbox with air at 75 psi (5bar-g) without any sign of leakage or bubbles, static torque and cycle testing of the actuator at ambient and 75 psi (5bar-g) external pressure (1,090 cycles at 2400 psi [160bar-g] on each test), final static torque monitoring, strip down and inspection. This was a much shorter test, taking only three days to complete, although the combined total operating test, amounting to over 2,000 cycles, is representative of a much longer working life.

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