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Is Your Favorite a 2016 Top 10 Article?

Is Your Favorite a 2016 Top 10 Article?

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Portable Alloy Verification Devices

Portable Alloy Verification Devices

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Force and Direction Controls for Valve Actuators

Force and Direction Controls for Valve Actuators

Valve actuators deliver either linear or...

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Industry Headlines

PA Town Approves $6B Shell Ethane Cracker Plant

Monday, 16 January 2017  |  Chris Guy

Potter Township in western Pennsylvania has granted a conditional use permit for a $6 billion petrochemical plant to be built by Shell Chemicals. The ...

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Industry Headlines

David Paradis Named President of Weir Flow Control Division

3 DAYS AGO

The Weir Group PLC has appointed David Paradis to its group executive as president of the Weir Flow Control Division. He will take up this new role on January 23, 2017. Paradis succeeds John Heasley who was appointed Weir Group CFO in October 2016.

Paradis is currently president of Weir Oil & Gas&r...

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GE, Transocean Announce Performance-Based Service Agreement

5 DAYS AGO

GE Oil & Gas has secured a new contractual service agreement (CSA), valued at approximately $180 million, with Transocean. Under the agreement , GE will provide condition-based monitoring and maintenance services for pressure control equipment on seven of Transocean’s rigs over the next 10 t...

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PA Town Approves $6B Shell Ethane Cracker Plant

4 HOURS AGO

Potter Township in western Pennsylvania has granted a conditional use permit for a $6 billion petrochemical plant to be built by Shell Chemicals. The location was chosen because more than 70% of North American polyethylene customers are within a 700-mile radius of Pittsburgh, PA. More state and fede...

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$4.17B Canadian Trans Mountain Pipeline Expansion Approved

4 DAYS AGO

Kinder Morgan’s Trans Mountain Expansion Project has received its environmental certificate from British Columbia, Canada. The proposed $4.17 billion Trans Mountain Expansion Project would increase the capacity of the pipeline to 890,000 barrels per day. The current capacity of the pipeline is 3...

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Texas Economy Poised to Shift into ‘Second Gear’ in 2017

5 HOURS AGO

Texas job growth should increase slightly from 1.6% in 2016 to about 2% in 2017, says Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas assistant vice president and senior economist Keith Phillips.

“Job growth picked up in the second half of 2016 due to a stabilization of the energy sector,” Phillips said. ...

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World Bank: U.S. Could Boost Global Economy in 2017

4 DAYS AGO

Global growth for 2017 is projected at 2.7%, 0.1% lower than the June 2016 forecast, and 0.4% higher than the estimate for 2016. Going forward, according to the World Bank, global growth is projected to pick up modestly, reaching 2.9% by 2018.

Downside risks to global growth include increasing policy u...

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Specialized Designs for Pipeline Valve Actuation

Expansion of oil and gas production into remote and inhospitable areas of the world challenges actuator manufacturers to produce rugged, reliable and often specialized products to meet the pipeline industry’s needs.

 

A number of specialized designs of valve actuators have been developed over the years to cope with specific valve control demands that are found in the pipeline industry. Examples include gas-over-oil, high-pressure gas and electro-hydraulic actuators, as well as specialized hydraulic actuators designed for subsea valves.

While the fundamental principles of design for these actuators are well established, rapidly advancing technologies, increasing demands for reliability, reduced maintenance and automation from end-user industries continue to present manufacturers with new challenges. In addition, the expansion of oil and gas production into increasingly remote and previously unreachable areas, combined with the growth of strategic pipeline distribution networks across remote and inhospitable landscapes, places further pressure on the manufacturer to provide rugged and reliable valve actuation solutions.


Testing for Reliability in the Extreme

The importance of testing cannot be over emphasized, not only to prove the long-term performance and reliability of products, but also to gain specific approvals from end-user markets without which it would be difficult or even impossible to bid on projects.

Some major equipment manufacturers’ testing policies are designed to reassure the customer that the quality of its product range is first class through the achievement of internationally recognized quality assurance approvals for design and manufacture.

Running in parallel with these assessments, equipment manufacturers also subject their products to the test procedures required for end-user approvals in specific markets and industrial disciplines. In these areas there have been significant market-led increases in activity in recent years.

In addition to the hyperbaric testing of subsea actuators and performance verification of gas-over-oil actuators mentioned later in this article, testing programs in recent years have expanded to include specific tests such as:

  • IP66M/67M, dust, water jet, immersion and deluge testing of pneumatic actuators
  • Shell qualification for hydraulic and pneumatic actuators
  • Transco qualification for hydraulic actuators
  • HIPPS (high integrity pressure protection systems) qualification for control systems
  • GOST Russian Certificate of Conformity and Federal Use Permit
  • ABS (American Bureau of Shipping)

These are in addition to ATEX explosion-proof certification, PED (European Pressure Equipment Directive) approval and SIL (safety integrity level) assessments that also apply to pipeline actuation products.


Subsea Actuators, Testing In-depth

Subsea valve applications, which often involve vital fail-safe and associated safety-related duties, represent an area of technology demanding the very highest levels of quality and product integrity to ensure reliable long-term performance. It may be prudent to not only test to API (American Petroleum Institute) qualification but also to achieve third-party-witnessed hyperbaric approval to the international qualification procedure ST-028.

In one API test performed by a major equipment manufacturer, a scotch-yoke hydraulic actuator with ROV (remote-operated vehicle) override was operated in a hyperbaric chamber under an external pressure of 3600 psi (240bar-g) to represent the submerged qualification depth of 2,400 meters over a period of six weeks. The actuator was selected as a representative sample of all the company’s subsea actuators for the purpose of the testing, which was witnessed by a third-party inspector. The severity of the testing reflects the crucial nature of subsea actuator duties and the increasing depths at which actuators are expected to perform as exploration moves into new, more remote offshore fields.

In the ST-028 hyperbaric test a similar hydraulic actuator fitted with a limit switchbox was subjected to cyclic testing to prove its suitability for submerged installation at a depth of 45 meters. The witnessed testing included pressurizing the switchbox with air at 75 psi (5bar-g) without any sign of leakage or bubbles, static torque and cycle testing of the actuator at ambient and 75 psi (5bar-g) external pressure (1,090 cycles at 2400 psi [160bar-g] on each test), final static torque monitoring, strip down and inspection. This was a much shorter test, taking only three days to complete, although the combined total operating test, amounting to over 2,000 cycles, is representative of a much longer working life.

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