Carbon (CO2) capture and storage (CCS) is a series of processes targeted at reducing CO2 emissions from industrial processes, thereby preventing large amounts of CO2 from being released into the atmosphere. The CCS chain in recent years has been expanded to carbon capture utilization and storage (CCUS). This has given large industry emitters the benefit of possible utilization of CO2 to positively influence their cash flow.
Some of the large industrial sources of CO2 emission are highlighted below and include crude oil production and refining, natural gas production and processing, combustion process plants like power plants, and manufacturing industries including, but not limited to, iron and steel production, aluminium production, chemical industry stone and clay industry (which includes cement and the pulp and paper industry). CO2 emissions can come from both their process/technology unit and heat generation units.